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遗产漫步|苏达班国家公园和老虎保护

http://www.chla.com.cn 2017-08-25 来源:风景园林网 作者:奥利弗,曹新 发表评论(0)

  编者按:

  世界遗产是针对不可移动的有形遗产的一项全球性的保护计划。联合国教育、科学及文化组织第十七届大会于1972年11月16日在巴黎通过《保护世界文化和自然遗产公约》,这在人类的历史上是一个里程碑式的文件,标志着人类开始以崭新的角度审视人类自身和历史以及自然的关系。《世界遗产公约》建立了世界遗产这个保护体系。1992年联合国教科文组织建立了世界遗产中心(The World Heritage Centre,WHC)作为公约的秘书处。

  世界遗产分为两大类:文化遗产(Cultural Heritage)和自然遗产(Natural Heritage)。世界遗产共有十条标准,前六条为文化遗产的标准,后四条为自然遗产的标准。如果同时符合文化遗产和自然遗产的标准,则为混合遗产(Mixed Cultural and Natural Heritage)。

  到2017年,世界遗产名录已登录了1073处遗产,其中832处文化遗产,206处自然遗产,35处混合遗产,这些遗产分布在167个国家。这些遗产中包含37处共有遗产(跨国界),54处濒危遗产。到2017年1月,已有193个国家加入了《世界遗产公约》。目前拥有遗产最多的是意大利,有53处世界遗产,中国居第二位,为52处,其中36处文化遗产,12处自然遗产,4处混合遗产。

  我们将陆续介绍典型的具有代表性的世界遗产,以促进大家对于世界遗产的了解。

  1 Heritage regional background / 遗产地背景

  The Sundarbans National Park is a large area (10,000 km2) containing the world's largest coastal mangrove forest shared by India (5,980 km2) and Bangladesh (4,020 km2). The entire basin is traversed by a complex network of interconnecting waterways and is home to the Bengal tiger and to a variety of birds, reptiles and aquatic mammal species such as crocodile and dolphin. The history of protection of Indian part of the Sundarbans dates back to 1878, it was declared as the core area of Sundarbans tiger reserve in 1973, a wildlife sanctuary in 1977, in 1984 it was declared a National Park and it was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1987 as a natural property under category (ix) and (x).

  苏达班国家公园是一个由印度(5,980平方公里)和孟加拉国(4,020平方公里)组成的世界上最大的一片沿海红树林。 整个盆地被相互连接的水网穿过,是孟加拉虎和各种鸟类、爬行动物和水生哺乳动物(如鳄鱼和海豚)的家园。苏达班国家公园印度部分的保护历史可以追溯到1878年,它于1973年宣布成为苏达班老虎保护区的核心区域,1977年成为野生动物保护区,1984年成为国家公园,并于1987年作为自然遗产以(ix)和(x)两项标准列入联合国教科文组织世界遗产名录。

遗产漫步|苏达班国家公园和老虎保护

Fig. 1: Location map of Sundarbans national park / 图1:苏达班国家公园区位图

Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons / 照片来源:维基共享资源: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:India_relief_location_map.jpg

  2 Highlight the outstanding universal value / 突出普遍价值

  The mangrove habitat supports the single largest population of tigers in the world which have adapted to an almost amphibious life, they have acquired the ability of swimming for long distances and feeding on fish, crab and water monitor lizards. They are also renowned for being "man-eaters", most probably due to their relatively high frequency of encounters with local people.

  Through some existing paths that passes through the jungle, the islands offer a unique experience of the wide aquatic mangrove forest landscape. The islands serve as storm barrier, shore stabilizer, nutrient and sediment trap. They are also of great economic importance as a source of timber and natural resources, and support a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

  红树林栖息地支撑起世界上最大的老虎种群,这里的老虎种群适应了水陆两栖的生活,获得了长距离游泳和捕食鱼类、螃蟹和蜥蜴能力。同时,它们以"食人"闻名,可能因为与当地人遇到的频率相对较高。

  通过丛林现有路径,这些岛屿为广泛的水生红树林景观提供了独特的体验。 这些岛屿作为风暴屏障,对稳定海岸,沉降营养和沉积物具有重要意义, 它们作为木材和自然资源的来源也具有重要的经济意义,并且成为各种水生和陆生生物的栖息地。

遗产漫步|苏达班国家公园和老虎保护

Fig. 2: Mangrove forests of Sundarban / 图2:苏达班红树林。

Photo credit / 照片来源:Thousand Wonders: http://www.thousandwonders.net/Sundarbans+National+Park

  3 Criteria of Inscription of the Sundarban to the world heritage / 苏达班国家公园入选世界遗产的标准

  The Sundarban was designated to the UNESCO world heritage list under two criteria:

  Criterion (ix): The Sundarbans is the largest area of mangrove forest in the world and the only one that is inhabited by the tiger. The land area in the Sundarbans is constantly being changed, molded and shaped by the action of the tides, with erosion processes more prominent along estuaries and deposition processes along the banks of inner estuarine waterways influenced by the accelerated discharge of silt from sea water. Its role as a wetland nursery for marine organisms and as a climatic buffer against cyclones is a unique natural process.

  Criterion (x): The mangrove ecosystem of the Sundarbans is unique because of its immensely rich mangrove flora and mangrove-associated fauna. Some 78 species of mangroves have been recorded in the area making it the richest mangrove forest in the world. It is also unique as the mangroves are not only dominant as fringing mangroves along the creeks and backwaters, but also grow along the sides of rivers in muddy as well as in flat, sandy areas.

  苏达班根据两个标准被列入为联合国教科文组织世界遗产名录:

  标准(ix):苏达班是世界上唯一一处作为老虎栖息地且红树林面积最大的区域,苏达班的土地面积随着潮汐的不断变化,在沿着淤积排放的河口处海水侵蚀作用更加突出。它作为海洋生物的"湿地苗圃"和作为气候缓冲区对抗暴风是一个独特的自然过程。

  标准(x):苏达班的红树林生态系统是独一无二的,因为它有非常丰富的红树林植物群和红树林相关的动物群。该地区共记录了约78种红树林,使其成为世界上最富有的红树林。并且苏达班是独一无二的,这里主要的红树林不仅沿着溪流边缘生长,而且还在河流两岸平坦的沙地中生长。

遗产漫步|苏达班国家公园和老虎保护

Fig. 3: Sunderban Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) the most numerous of the tiger subspecies / 图3:苏达班孟加拉虎(Panthera tigris tigris)是最多的老虎亚种

Photo credit / 照片来源: Bonvoyage Leisure Ltd: http://www.thetourindia.com/photogallery/photos/news-26-1.jpg

  4 More about tiger and its conservation in India / 更多关于老虎及其在印度的保护

  The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species characterized by muscular bodies with powerful forelimbs, large heads and long tails. Tigers are mostly recognizable on their pattern of brown-orange fur with lighter underside on which distinctive dark vertical stripes make unique pattern for each individual. Tigers are top predators, territorial, generally solitary animals requiring large and continuous areas for habitat to support their prey requirements. Tigers are primarily found in India but relatively smaller populations exist in Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand and Vietnam. Given the increased human pressure, poaching practices and decline of natural prey that occurred during the last five decades many had predicted that the tiger would be extinct by the end of the 20th century. Thanks to the Indian conservation efforts the trend was overturned and doomsayers were proved wrong. At present, India has the particularity of having the highest number of tigers in the world (2,226). According to the 2016 WWF global wild tiger population status report, the numbers of tigers are estimated to 3,890 in 2016 worldwide from an estimated 3,200 in 2010. This increase primarily came from India where an increase of 520 tigers was recorded only between 2010 and 2014. Tiger is at the top of the food chain in the wild and its conservation saves so much more of the wildlife; with just one tiger, 10.11714 km2 of forest are saved.

  老虎(孟加拉虎)是最大的猫科动物,其特征是强壮的前肢、大脑袋和长尾巴。老虎的身体花纹通常都是棕色的,有较浅的底色,独特的黑色竖条纹使得每只老虎的纹路都与众不同。老虎作为顶级的捕食者,通常是独居动物,通常它们需要大片的栖息地来满足它们捕食的需求。孟加拉、不丹、中国、印度尼西亚、老挝、马来西亚、缅甸、尼泊尔、俄罗斯、泰国和越南等国的老虎数量相对较少。鉴于人类压力不断增加,偷猎行为和自然猎物的减少,在过去的五十年里,许多人曾预言,到20世纪末,老虎将会灭绝。多亏了印度的保护努力,这一趋势得到扭转,而那些预言者也被证明是错误的。目前,印度拥有世界上老虎数量最多的国家(2226只)。根据2016年世界野生老虎基金会全球野生老虎状况报告,2016年全球老虎数量估计为3890只,2010年估计有3200只。这一增长主要来自印度,在2010年至2014年间,仅记录了520只老虎的数量。老虎在野生动物的食物链顶端,它的保护可以拯救更多的野生动物; 只要有一只老虎,就能拯了10.11714平方公里的森林。

  5 Threats on Tiger / 虎的威胁

  Today's success at protecting tiger is fragile, while some tiger populations in India, Nepal, Bhutan and Russia have recovered slightly, those in southeast Asia continue to decline. Now, tigers face 'unprecedented' threats far greater than many they have already undergone. Since 2010, tiger is listed as 'Endangered' on the IUCN Red List.

  今天在保护老虎方面的成功仍是脆弱的,印度、尼泊尔、不丹和俄罗斯的老虎数量略有回升,而东南亚地区的老虎数量则继续下降。现在,老虎面临着前所未有的威胁,远远超过了他们已经经历过的。自2010年以来,老虎在IUCN红色名录上被列为 "濒危物种"。

  5.1 Poaching and illegal wildlife trade / 偷猎和非法野生动物贸易

  Poaching motivated by the international illegal wildlife trade is the largest immediate threat to the remaining tiger population. Tiger has been decimated by Poaching for fur and body parts, this have greatly reduced tiger populations in the wild. Despite the international ban on tiger trade, the demand for tigers as status symbols, decorative items, and traditional cures has increased dramatically, leading to a new poaching crisis.

  被国际非法野生动物贸易所驱使的偷猎行为是对现存老虎数量的最大威胁。老虎因为皮毛和身体部位的偷猎而被猎杀,这使得野生老虎的数量大大减少。尽管国际上禁止老虎交易,但对老虎作为地位象征、装饰物品和传统疗法的需求急剧增加,导致了新的偷猎危机。

遗产漫步|苏达班国家公园和老虎保护

Fig. 4: Tiger skin rugs / 图4:虎皮毯子

Photo Credit / 照片来源: Defra/E. Morton at: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-nottinghamshire-37523209

  5.2 Conflict with humans / 与人类的冲突

  Conflict with humans is another menace that hunts tiger populations as they continue to lose their habitat and undergo severe loss of natural prey like deer and antelopes. Tiger populations are increasingly coming into conflict with humans as they attack domestic animals and sometimes people; in retaliation, tigers are often killed by angry villagers.

  与人类的冲突是另一种威胁,因为它们继续失去栖息地,并其自然猎物如鹿和羚羊严重损失。因为它们攻击家养动物,老虎越来越多地与人类发生冲突,而有时人类作为报复,猛虎经常被愤怒的村民杀死。

  5.3 Linear infrastructure / 线性基础设施

  While improved transport and infrastructure is key to the economic development of tiger owning countries, the consequences on tigers are alarming. Linear infrastructure including roads, railways, gas pipelines, fences, firebreaks, electric power lines and canals is a new and potentially far greater threat faced by tiger than ever before. The development of linear infrastructure through tiger landscapes not only absorb huge amount of tiger living space but is also responsible of fragmentation of tigers' habitats into smaller and more isolated fragments that prevent tigers from having the vast uninterrupted spaces they need to hunt while also raising multiple ecological effects on ecosystems and lead to increased human disturbances and tiger mortality due to vehicle collision. The unprecedented scale and speed of future developments threatens tigers' existence, unless a new approach centered on long-term sustainability is taken.

  虽然改善交通和基础设施是老虎国家经济发展的关键,但对老虎的影响也是令人担忧。包括公路、铁路、天然气管道、围栏、防火线、电力线和运河在内的线性基础设施,是老虎面临的一个新的潜在威胁,比以往任何时候都要大得多。线性基础设施的发展使得不仅被吸收大量的老虎的生存空间, 而且老虎的栖息地的分裂成更小的、更孤立的片段,阻碍老虎拥有它们所需要的大量不受干扰的空间,同时也会对生态系统造成多重生态影响,并导致人类干扰的增加以及因车辆碰撞而增加的老虎死亡率。未来发展的空前规模和速度威胁着老虎的生存,除非采取一种以长期可持续性为中心的新方法。

  6 Indian experience at protecting tiger / 印度保护老虎的经验

  6.1 Tiger task force / 老虎特别工作组

  The year 1970 mark a turning point to the then crumbling conservation efforts in India. Aware of the alarming reduction of tiger population that was dragging the species to extinction the Government of India appointed the Tiger Task Force under the chairmanship of Dr. Karan Singh to monitor the status of the problem and suggest adequate recommendations. The task force submitted its report in 1972 revealing the existence of only 1827 tigers in India. From the report also emerged the blueprint strategy for India's tiger conservation programme 'Project tiger'.

  1970年标志着印度当时保护的努力濒临崩溃的一个转折点。由于意识到老虎数量的减少,导致了物种灭绝,印度政府Karan Singh总统任命了"老虎特别工作组"来监督这个问题的情况,并提出了适当的建议。特别工作组在1972年提交了报告,公布了印度只有1827只老虎的存在。报告还提出了印度老虎保护计划--"老虎计划"的蓝图。

  6.2 Project tiger / 老虎计划

  Project tiger was launched in 1973 aiming at protecting tiger from extinction, ensuring a meaningful population of tigers in their natural habitats and preserving areas of biological importance around them. While wild tiger numbers declined across India neighboring countries, the project ensured that most of the source populations in India were intact.

  "老虎计划" 于1973年启动,旨在保护老虎免于灭绝,确保老虎在自然栖息地保持有意义的数量,并保护具有生物重要性的周边地带。尽管印度周边国家的野生老虎数量有所下降,但该项目确保了印度大部分的老虎种群完整。

  6.3 Project tiger's achievements / 老虎计划的成就

  Over the years, Project tiger accumulated numerous achievements among which the majors are:

  Project tiger has saved the endangered tiger from extinction, and has put the species on an assured path to recovery by improving the protection and status of its habitat.

  The project established a core-buffer-corridor strategy; while the core area of a tiger reserve is managed for wildlife conservation, the buffer is treated as a multiple use zone. The number of tiger reserves has increased from 9 in 1973, to 50 in 2014.

  Project tiger has also established the Tiger Protection Force with the aim of catching poachers and stopping the killing. This initiative has been instrumental in relocating about 200 000 villagers in the rural areas so that they are no longer live within the natural habitat of the tigers; this has reduced the risk of tiger attacks on humans which often leads to the killing of tiger for the safety of the villagers.

  While conserving the flagship species, the project has also saved several other species of plants and animals from extinction and has contributed towards several intangible environmental benefits to society, such as absorption of carbon dioxide, improvement of micro climate, rainfall and river flow. The project has generated considerable wages for the benefit of peripheral dwelling communities, who are deployed as local work force for protection or through tourism.

  多年来,"老虎计划"积累了大量的成就,其中包括:

  老虎计划将濒临灭绝的老虎拯救出来,并通过改善其栖息地的保护和地位,使这一物种走上了一条有保障的道路。

  该项目建立了一个"核心的--缓冲--走廊"战略;虽然老虎保护区的核心区域监管为野生动物保护,缓冲区作为一个多用途区。老虎保护区的数量已经从1973年的9个增加到2014年的50个。

  老虎保护计划还建立了老虎保护部队,目的是抓捕偷猎者并阻止猎杀老虎。这项计划推动了对乡村地区的20万名村民进行重新安置,使他们不再生活在老虎的自然栖息地;这也降低了老虎攻击村民的风险以及减少村民因为安全问题而杀死老虎。

  在保护旗舰物种的同时,该项目还挽救了其他一些动植物物种的灭绝,并为社会带来了一些无形的环境效益,如二氧化碳的吸收、小气候的改善、降雨和河流的流动。该项目为周边社区创造了可观的收入,当地劳动力被雇佣参与保护工作和旅游产业。

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